(A line by line historical analysis of the accusations of the Declaration of Independence.)

XI. He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.

After the "Peace of Paris," in 1764, when, by treaty, the "Seven Years' War" was ended, and quiet was for a time restored in both Europe and America, Great Britain, instead of withdrawing her regular troops from America, left quite a large number here, and required the colonists to contribute to their support. On the surface of things, there appeared no reason for this "standing army in time of peace;" but there can be little doubt, as we have before said, that growing jealousy of the power and independent feeling of the colonists, and an already conceived design to tax the colonies without their consent, were the true cause of the presence of armed men among a peaceful people. They were doubtless intended to suppress democracy and republican independence, and to enforce every revenue law, however arbitrary and unjust soever it might be. The colonists felt this, and hence the presence of the British troops was always a cause for irritation, and unappeased discontent. And, finally, when the people of Massachusetts began openly to resist the encroachments of British power, a large standing army was quartered in its capital, for no other purpose than to awe them into submission to a tyrant's will.

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